Low energy nanoemulsions as carriers for essential oils in topical formulations for antioxidant skin protection Original scientific paper

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Ana Gledović
Danica Bajuk-Bogdanović
Snežana Uskoković-Marković
Leposava Pavun
Snežana Savić
Aleksandra Janošević Ležaić


In this study several essential oils (EOs): basil – BA, lemon balm – LB and oregano – OR were incorporated into nanoemulsions (NEs) as prospective carriers for natural and sensitive bioactives. NEs were prepared via the phase inversion composition (PIC) method, which is an energy-efficient cold process. Physicochemical stability of NEs was confirmed by particle size distribution analysis, electrical conductivity and pH value measurements, as well as by optical microscopy observations. The type of EO and the surfactant and oil mix concentration were found to be crucial factors governing the NE properties and stability. Raman spectra of the EOs confirmed main active ingredients and provided detection of interactions with the nanocarrier, which is a novel application of this technique. The antioxidant activity towards DPPH radical in methanol was concentration-dependent with a similar trend for individual oils and oil-loaded NEs (OR> LB> BA). However, the ABTS test in an aqueous medium revealed notable change in the order of activity after EO nanonisation at higher EO concentrations. Overall, it was found that OR-NE was the most effective and stable system, since OR acted as a co-stabiliser in the NE formulation, and its remarkably high antioxidant activity was successfully preserved during 6 months of storage.


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Gledović, A., Bajuk-Bogdanović, D., Uskoković-Marković, S., Pavun, L., Savić, S., & Janošević Ležaić, A. (2022). Low energy nanoemulsions as carriers for essential oils in topical formulations for antioxidant skin protection: Original scientific paper. HEMIJSKA INDUSTRIJA, 76(1), 29–42. https://doi.org/10.2298/HEMIND210509004G
Applied Chemistry


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