Image analysis as a useful tool for fast detection of dimensional and structural changes of poly(ethylene terephthalate) containers

Main Article Content

Nenad Jevremović
Sava Veličković
Melina Kalagasidis Krušić
Vesna Panić
Tanja Volkov-Husović
Radmila Jančić-Heinmann
Ivanka Popović


The aim of this paper is to present image analysis as a useful technique for fast, reliable and non-destructive detection of dimensional and structural changes in polymers. The possibility of applying image analysis was demonstrated in the case of solvent-induced crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) containers filled with commonly used organic solvents: chlorobenzene, isophorone, xylene, Espesol, Shellsol A 100, Solvesso 150, propylene glycol, glycerin and water and subjected to the storage stability test at 54 °C for 14 days (CIPAC 1-MT 46.1.3). In addition, the obtained results were analyzed using one-step analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with the Duncans statistical test (p<0.05). According to the achieved results, three main impacts of the presented paper could be distinguished: 1) dimensional and transparency changes could be precisely followed by image analysis in both following cases: for small changes in water, as well as for significant ones in chlorobenzene; 2) a correlation between the changes in the degree of crystallinity and transparency could be obtained without the continuous material testing by DSC; 3) image analysis is potentially applicable for assessment of other crystalline polymers.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Jevremović, N., Veličković, S., Kalagasidis Krušić, M., Panić, V., Volkov-Husović, T., Jančić-Heinmann, R., & Popović, I. (2018). Image analysis as a useful tool for fast detection of dimensional and structural changes of poly(ethylene terephthalate) containers. HEMIJSKA INDUSTRIJA, 72(6), 351–361.
Engineering of Materials - Polymers


Tavares AA, Silva DFA, Lima PS, Andrade DLACS, Silva SML, Canedo EL. Chain extension of virgin and recycled polyethylene terephthalate. Polym. Test. 2016; 50:26-32.

Xu Y, Song Y, Zheng Q. Effects of nanosilica on crystallization and thermal ageing behaviors of polyethylene terephthalate. Chinese J. Polym. Sci. 2015; 33(5):697-708.

Dombre C, Rigou P, Chalier P. The use of active PET to package rosé wine: Changes of aromatic profile by chemical evolution and by transfers. Food Res. Inter. 2015; 74:63-71.

Plotan M, Frizzell C, Robinson V, Elliot CT. Connolly L. Endocrine disruptor activity in bottled mineral and flavoured water. Food Chem. 2013; 136(3-4):1590-1596.

Dombre C, Marais S, Chappey C, Lixon-Buquet C, Chalier P. The behaviour of wine aroma compounds related to structure and barrier properties of virgin, recycled and active PET membranes. J. Membr. Sci. 2014; 463:215–225.

Welle F, Franz R. Diffusion coefficients and activation energies of diffusion of low molecular weight migrants in Poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles. Polym. Test. 2012; 93(31):93-101.

Welle F, Bayer F, Franz R. Quantification of the Sorption Behavior of Polyethylene Terephthalate Polymer versus PET/PA Polymer Blends towards Organic Compounds. Packag. Technol. Sci. 2012; 25:341–349.

Chandra P, Koros WJ. Sorption and transport of methanol in poly(ethylene terephthalate). Polymer 2009; 50:236–244.

Khanum R, Takarada W, Aneja A, Kikutani T. Crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) filaments by infusion of ethanol upon cold drawing. Polymer 2015; 59:26-34.

Ali W, Sultana P, Joshi M, Rajendran S. A solvent induced crystallization method to imbue bioactive ingredients of neem oil into the compact structure of poly (ethylene terephthalate) polyester. Materials Sci. Eng.: C. 2016; 64:399-406.

Andjelić S, Scogna RC. Polymer crystallization rate challenges: The art of chemistry and Processing. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015; 132:42066.

Aharoni SM, Murthy NS. Effects of Solvent-induced Crystallization on the Amorphous Phase of Polycarbonate of bisphenol A). Inter. J. Polym. Mater. 1998; 42(3-4):275-283.

Radhakrishnan J, Kaito A. Structure formation during the isothermal crystallization of oriented amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate) films. Polymer 2001; 42:3859-3866.

Plastics 2020 Accessed May, 2018.

Monitor & control PET bottle crystallinity & barrier properties, in: Plastics Technology. Gardner Publications, Inc. 2015. May, 2018.

Ouyang H, Lee WH, Ouyang W, Shuie ST, Wu TM. Solvent-Induced crystallization in poly(ethylene terephthalate) during mass transport: Mechanism and boundary condition. Macromolecules 2004; 37:7719-7723.

Ouyang H, Lee WH, Shih MC. Three stages of crystallization in poly(ethylene terephthalate) during mass transport. Macromolecules 2002; 35:8428-8432.

Image Pro Plus. Accessed May, 2018.

Fernandes-Santos C, Souza-Mello V, da Silva Faria T, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Quantitative Morphology Update: Image Analysis. Int. J. Morphol. 2013; 31(1):23-30.

Pereira AC, Reis MS, Saraiva PM. Quality Control of Food Products using Image Analysis and Multivariate Statistical Tools. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009; 48:988-998.

Honglu Y, MacGregor JF, Haarsma G, Bourg W. Digital imaging for online monitoring and control of industrial snack food processes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2003; 42:3036-3044.

Jose AJ, Wong LS, Merrington J, Bradley M. Automated image analysis of polymer beads and size distribution. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2005; 44:8659-8662.

Chidambaram D, Venkatraj R, Manisankar P. Solvent-induced modifications in poly(ethylene terephthalate) structure, properties and dye ability. Indian J. Fibre Text. Res. 2002; 27:199-210.

Weast RC. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 55th ed., Cleveland, Ohio; 1974.

Olson E. Particle Shape Factors and Their Use in Image Analysis–Part 1: Theory. Summer 2011; 15(3):85-96.

McClellan AL. Tables of experimental dipole moments. Freeman, San Francisco; 1963.

Hansen CM, Skaarup K. The three dimensional solubility parameter - key to paint component Affinities III. - Independent calculation of the parameter components. J. Paint Techn. 1967; 39(511):511-514. Accessed May, 2018.