Investigation of hazardous waste - A case study of electric arc furnace dust characterization Technical paper

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Vanja Trifunović
Snežana Milić
Ljiljana Avramović
Radojka Jonović
Vojka Gardić
Stefan Đorđievski
Silvana Dimitrijević


Dust from an electric arc furnace is formed as the main by-product of the steel production process from the secondary iron-based raw materials. This dust has significant contents of Zn and Fe, as well as Pb, Cd, Ca, Mg, Cr, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, F, Cl and other elements and is considered hazardous industrial solid waste since it contains heavy metals. In order to protect the environment and public health from the negative impact of this type of hazardous waste, it is necessary, even mandatory, to carry out its treatment in accordance with the legislation of the country where it is located. Before applying any treatment of the electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, it is necessary to perform its detailed characterization. In this paper, the following charac­terization of EAF dust originating in the Republic of Serbia was performed: physical-mechanical and chemical characterization, determination of granulometric composition, and mineralogical characterization. Also, the EAF dust impact on the environment and human health was assessed (Leachability and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests). The results have shown that the Zn content is in the range 32 to 35 % and that the main mineralogical phases of the dust are zincite, franklinite, magnetite, and magnesioferrite. Granulometric analysis has shown that 80 % of the sample consists of particles less than 26 µm in size. According to the leaching test results, the EAF dust is characterized as a hazardous waste due to the increased chloride content, while the TCLP test indicated dust toxicity due to the increased contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb.


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Trifunović, V., Milić, S., Avramović, L., Jonović, R., Gardić, V., Đorđievski, S., & Dimitrijević, S. (2022). Investigation of hazardous waste - A case study of electric arc furnace dust characterization: Technical paper. HEMIJSKA INDUSTRIJA (Chemical Industry), 76(4), 237–249.
Environmental Engineering - Solid Waste Treatment

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